Large Language Models-Guided Dynamic Adaptation (LLM-DA): A Machine Learning Method for Reasoning on Temporal Knowledge Graphs TKGs

Researchers from Beijing University of Technology, China, Monash University, Australia, the University of Hong Kong, China, and Griffith University, Australia, introduced LLM-DA to interpret Temporal Knowledge Graphs (TKGs). Temporal Knowledge Graphs (TKGs) are structured representations of real-world data incorporating temporal dimensions. Traditional methods for Temporal Knowledge Graph Reasoning (TKGR) rely on deep learning algorithms, which are interpretability or temporal logical rules, and often struggle to capture temporal patterns effectively. The evolving nature of TKGs poses another challenge for reasoning models, requiring them to update to integrate new knowledge promptly. 

Existing methods in TKGR, such as deep learning algorithms and temporal logical rules, have been successful in reasoning but often lack interpretability and adaptability to evolving data. The study aims to utilize LLMs as potential candidates for TKGR due to their extensive knowledge and reasoning abilities. However, it acknowledges the black-box nature of LLMs and the challenge of updating them promptly to integrate new knowledge. The proposed LLM-DA method addresses these issues by leveraging LLMs to extract temporal logical rules from historical data and dynamically adapting them to incorporate the latest events. This approach enhances the interpretability and adaptability of TKGR models without the need for fine-tuning LLMs.

LLM-DA consists of several key stages: Temporal Logical Rules Sampling, Rule Generation, Dynamic Adaptation, and Candidate Reasoning. In Temporal Logical Rules Sampling, constrained Markovian random walks are employed to extract temporal logical rules from historical data. Rule Generation utilizes LLMs to generate high coverage and high-quality general rules based on the extracted rules and relevant contextual relations. Dynamic Adaptation updates the LLMs-generated rules using current data, ensuring they incorporate the latest knowledge. Finally, Candidate Reasoning integrates rule-based and graph-based reasoning to infer potential answers for queries on the TKG. 

The method is evaluated on ICEWS14 and ICEWS05-15 datasets, the subsets of the Integrated Crisis Early Warning System (a TKG of international political events and social dynamics). Experiments are performed to compare LLM-DA with classic methods for TKGR including LLM-based models. The experimental results demonstrate that LLM-DA outperforms state-of-the-art benchmarks across all metrics. Even without fine-tuning, LLM-DA surpasses all other LLM-based TKGR methods, demonstrating the effectiveness of its dynamic adaptation strategy in updating LLM-generated rules with the latest events.

In conclusion, the paper addresses the challenge of reasoning on Temporal Knowledge Graphs by introducing LLM-DA. The proposed method combines the power of Large Language Models with dynamic adaptation to extract temporal patterns and facilitate interpretable reasoning. By leveraging LLMs to generate rules and dynamically adapting them to incorporate new knowledge, LLM-DA provides a robust framework for TKGR tasks. The method demonstrates superior performance compared to existing methods, offering a promising solution for reasoning on evolving TKGs.

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