Artificial Intelligence has limitless possibilities, which is truly evident from the new releases and developments it introduces everyone to. With the release of the latest chatbot developed by OpenAI called ChatGPT, the field of AI has taken over the world as ChatGPT, due to its GPT’s transformer architecture, is always in the headlines. From deep learning, Natural Language Processing (NLP), and Natural Language Understanding (NLU) to Computer Vision, AI is propelling everyone into a future with endless innovations. Almost every industry is utilizing the potential of AI and revolutionizing itself. The excellent technological advancements, particularly in the areas of Large Language Models (LLMs), LangChain, and Vector Databases, are responsible for this remarkable development.
Large Language Models
The development of Large Language Models (LLMs) represents a huge step forward for Artificial Intelligence. These deep learning-based models demonstrate impressive accuracy and fluency while processing and comprehending natural language. LLMs are trained with the help of massive volumes of text data from a variety of sources, including books, journals, webpages, and other textual resources. They pick up on linguistic structures, patterns, and semantic linkages as they learn the language, which helps them understand the complexities of human communication.
The underlying architecture of LLMs typically involves a deep neural network with multiple layers. Based on the discovered patterns and connections found in the training data, this network analyses the input text and produces predictions. In order to reduce the discrepancy between the model’s expected and intended outputs, the model’s parameters are adjusted during the training phase. The LLM consumes the text data during training and tries to anticipate the following word or series of words depending on the context.
Uses of LLMs
- Answering questions: LLMs are skilled at answering questions, and in order to deliver precise and succinct responses to a question, they search through a vast corpus of text, such as books, papers, or websites.
- Content generation – LLMs have proven useful in activities involving content generation. They are capable of producing grammatically sound and coherent articles, blog entries, and other written content.
- Text Summarization: LLMs are excellent in text summarization, which entails retaining vital information while condensing lengthy texts into shorter, more digestible summaries.
- Chatbots – LLMs are frequently utilized in the creation of chatbots and systems that use conversational AI. They make it possible for these systems to interact with users in normal language by comprehending their questions, responding appropriately, and keeping context throughout the interaction.
- Language Translation – LLMs are able to accurately translate text between languages accurately, facilitating successful communication despite language hurdles.
Steps of training an LLM
- The initial stage in training an LLM is to compile a sizable textual dataset that the model will utilize to discover linguistic patterns and structures.
- Pre-processing is required once the dataset has been gathered to prepare it for training. In order to do this, the data must be cleaned by eliminating any unnecessary or redundant entries.
- Selecting the appropriate model architecture is essential for training an LLM. Transformer-based architectures have shown to be very efficient at processing and producing natural language, including the GPT model.
- The model’s parameters are adjusted to train the LLM, and their accuracy is increased using deep learning methods like backpropagation. The model processes the input data during training and produces predictions based on the recognized patterns.
- After the initial training, the LLM is further fine-tuned on specific tasks or domains to improve its performance in those areas.
- It is essential to evaluate the trained LLM’s performance in order to determine its efficacy by using a number of metrics, including perplexity and accuracy, to assess the model’s performance.
- The LLM is put into use in a production environment for real-world applications once it has been trained and assessed.
Some famous Language Models
- GPT – Generative Pre-trained Transformer is a prominent member of OpenAI’s GPT model family and serves as the underlying model for the well-known ChatGPT. It is a decoder-only unidirectional autoregressive model as it generates text by predicting the next word based on the previously generated words. With 175 billion parameters, GPT is popularly used for content generation, question answering, and whatnot.
- BERT – Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) is one of the first Transformer-based self-supervised language models. It is a potent model for comprehending and processing natural language with 340 million parameters.
- PaLM – Google’s Pathways Language Model (PaLM) with 540 billion parameters used a modified version of the common encoder-decoder Transformer model architecture and showed great performance in natural language processing tasks, code generation, question answering, etc.
LLMs have inherent limits when it comes to producing precise answers or addressing tasks that call for in-depth domain knowledge or experience, despite being adaptable and capable of executing a wide range of language tasks. LangChain, in this case, serves as a link between LLMs and subject-matter specialists. While incorporating specialized knowledge from domain experts, it makes use of the power of LLMs. It delivers more precise, thorough, and contextually appropriate answers in specialized subjects by fusing the general language understanding of LLMs with domain-specific expertise.
Importance of LangChain
When asking an LLM for a list of the top-performing stores from the previous week, without the LangChain framework, the LLM would come up with a logical SQL query to extract the desired outcome with fake but plausible column names. With the help of LangChain architecture, programmers can provide the LLM with a range of options and features. They can request that the LLM create a workflow that divides the issue across several parts and can be guided by the LLM’s questions and intermediary steps, leading to the LLM being able to respond with a comprehensive statement.
In order to search for medicine, LLMs can give generic information about medical issues, but they might not have the in-depth understanding needed to make specific diagnoses or therapy suggestions. LangChain, on the other hand, can add medical knowledge from specialists or databases of medical information to improve the LLM’s responses.
The vector database is a brand-new and distinctive database rapidly gaining acceptance in AI and machine learning domains. These are distinct from traditional relational databases, designed to store tabular data in rows and columns initially, and more contemporary NoSQL databases, like MongoDB, which store data as JSON documents. This is due to the fact that a vector database is only designed to store and retrieve vector embeddings as data.
A vector database is based on vector embedding, a data encoding carrying semantic information that enables AI systems to interpret and maintain the data long-term. In vector databases, the data is organized and stored using its geometric properties, where the coordinates of each object in space and other qualities that define it are used to identify it. These databases help search for similar items and perform advanced analysis on massive amounts of data.
Top Vector Databases
- Pinecone – Pinecone is a cloud-based vector database that was created with the express purpose of storing, indexing, and rapidly searching large collections of high-dimensional vectors. Its capability to perform real-time indexing and searching is one of its primary characteristics. It can handle both sparse and dense vectors.
- Chroma – Chroma is an open-source vector database that provides a quick and scalable way to store and retrieve embeddings. It is user-friendly and lightweight, offering a straightforward API and supporting a variety of backends, including well-liked choices like RocksDB and Faiss.
- Milvus – Milvus is a vector database system that is specifically designed to handle large amounts of complex data in an efficient manner. For a variety of applications, including similarity search, anomaly detection, and natural language processing, it is a strong and adaptable solution that offers high speed, performance, scalability, and specialized functionality.
- Redis – It is an amazing vector database with features including indexing and search, distance calculation, high performance, data storage and analysis, and quick response time.
- Vespa – Vespa supports geospatial search, and real-time analytics, gives quick query results, and has high data availability and a number of ranking options.
In conclusion, this year will see unprecedented growth in the widespread use of Artificial Intelligence. This outstanding development is due to the outstanding technological developments, particularly in the fields of Large Language Models (LLMs), LangChain, and Vector Databases. LLMs have transformed natural language processing; LangChain has given programmers a framework to build intelligent agents, and high-dimensional data can now be stored, indexed, and retrieved efficiently with vector databases. Together, these technological innovations have paved the way for an AI-driven future.
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Tanya Malhotra is a final year undergrad from the University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun, pursuing BTech in Computer Science Engineering with a specialization in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.
She is a Data Science enthusiast with good analytical and critical thinking, along with an ardent interest in acquiring new skills, leading groups, and managing work in an organized manner.